The federal democratic Republic of Nepal is a landlocked country in South Asia, marked by an astounding diversity of languages, ethnicities, cultures, and geographies within its relatively small borders. According to the Census (2021), Nepal has a total population of 29.1 million within a land area of 147,516 sq. km. In 2015, Nepal promulgated a new federal constitution through an elected Constituent Assembly. Through the new constitution it adopted a decentralized, cooperative federal system of governance, moving away from its strong monarchical traditions and centralized system of governance, bringing much hope for economic empowerment, social transformation, and an inclusive society after decades of political struggles, including an armed conflict. The constitution restructured Nepal into a federal republic, providing for federal, provincial, and local government institutions, each with constitutionally defined political structures and powers, as well as constitutionally assigned exclusive and concurrent functions and responsibilities.

Subnational governance structure

Nature of subnational governance institutions

Functional assignments

LoGICA Assessments

LoGICA Intergovernmental Profile: Nepal 2023 (PDF / Excel)

Additional resources

Nepal Country Profile (World Observatory on Subnational Governance and Investment, OECD/UCLG)

Local government country profile: Nepal (UN Women)

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Last updated: June 13, 2024