Mexico has been a federal country since 1824. States and municipalities have been constitutionally recognized as integral parts of the federal union throughout. Even though they receive a high share of their budget from federal transfers, states (90% of budget comes from federal transfers) and municipalities (between 30% and 70% of revenues come from the federal government) have extensive spending and administrative autonomy. Some functions are concurrent among two or more levels of government, such as education, as the federal government and states are, at the same time, in charge of providing infrastructure and services, or public security, where the three levels of government are involved in different capacities. Compared to other large federal countries, the role of local governments in Mexico is relatively limited.

Subnational governance structure

Nature of subnational governance institutions

Functional assignments

LoGICA Assessments

LoGICA Intergovernmental Profile: Mexico 2023 (Excel)

Additional resources

Outlook of Fiscal Relations between Levels of Government in Latin America and the Caribbean (Panorama de las relaciones fiscales entre niveles de gobierno en países de América Latina y el Caribe), IADB/CEPAL

Mexico Country Profile (World Observatory on Subnational Governance and Investment, OECD/UCLG)

Local government country profile: Mexico (UN Women)

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Last updated: December 1, 2023