The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, or The Republic of Indonesia, is the world’s largest archipelagic state that spans Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. With over 270 million people, Indonesia is the world’s fourth-most populous country. Java, the most populated island, accounts more than half of the country’s population. While remaining a unitary state, most of the public sector’s functional responsibilities (or authorities) are assigned to provincial and local governments except for a number of absolute authorities reserved for the central government: foreign policy, security, defense, judiciary, monetary, and religion. Other than these national-level functions, the public services enjoyed by Indonesians are mostly provided by the provincial and local governments.

Subnational government structure

Nature of subnational governance institutions

Functional assignments

LoGICA Assessment

LoGICA Intergovernmental Profile: Indonesia 2023 (PDF / Excel)

Additional resources

Indonesia Country Profile (World Observatory on Subnational Governance and Investment, OECD/UCLG)

Local government country profile: Indonesia (UN Women)

Two Decades of Fiscal Decentralization Implementation in Indonesia (Fiscal Policy Agency, Ministry of Finance, Republic of Indonesia)

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Last updated: September 24, 2023