Bolivia is a unitary state, though it became highly decentralized for the standards of the region since the approval of the 2009 Constitution under President Evo Morales. For instance, Bolivian municipalities are involved in the provision of secondary and tertiary health. (By comparison, only Brazilian municipalities provide that level of healthcare in South America). Subnational spending represents around 7% of GDP. Bolivia’s subnational institutions receive most of their income from transfers from the central government through shared taxes (fiscal co-participation), followed by direct taxes on hydrocarbons, and their own subnational taxes.

Subnational governance structure

Nature of subnational governance institutions

Functional assignments

LoGICA Assessments

LoGICA Intergovernmental Profile: Bolivia 2023 (Excel)

Additional resources

Country sheet: Bolivia. Panorama de las relaciones fiscales entre niveles de gobierno de países de América Latina y el Caribe. 2022.

Local government country profile: Bolivia (UN Women)

Bolivia Country Profile (World Observatory on Subnational Governance and Investment, OECD/UCLG)

Bolivia: Urban and Cities Platform (CEPAL)

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Last updated: April 6, 2024